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Old 06-07-2003, 04:03 AM   #1 (permalink)
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This Day in History: June 7, 1971 - 'Fuck' is protected under the First Amendment

<a target=new href="http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/">Brought to you by the History Channel - <b>LINK</b></a>

<b>1971 Vulgar writing is protected under the First Amendment</b>

The Supreme Court overturns the conviction of Paul Cohen for disturbing the peace. Cohen, who wore a jacket that read "Fuck the Draft" as he entered a courtroom on April 26, 1968, had been charged with violating a California law that made it illegal to "use any vulgar, profane, or indecent language within the presence or hearing of women or children, in a loud and boisterous manner." Cohen actually took off the jacket and folded it over his arm once inside the courthouse. However, a police officer in the building had seen it and sent the presiding judge a note suggesting that Cohen be held in contempt of court. When the judge declined, the officer arrested Cohen as he left the courtroom.

Cohen was convicted and sentenced to 30 days in jail. He described the jacket as his way of informing the public of the depth of his feelings against the Vietnam War and the draft. On appeal, and by a narrow vote of 5-4, the Supreme Court held that Cohen's jacket was protected by the First Amendment, despite the argument that it was so inflammatory that it "was certainly reasonably foreseeable that such conduct might cause others to rise up to commit a violent act against [Cohen] or attempt to forcibly remove his jacket."

The majority of the justices rejected this notion. They noted that when people go out in public they occasionally see and hear things that they don't like. Justice Hugo Black, usually a stalwart defender of the First Amendment, was one of the dissenting judges, claiming that Cohen's act of wearing the jacket wasn't speech at all, but conduct that could be punished. However, according to the final decision, "those in the Los Angeles courthouse could effectively avoid further bombardment of their sensibilities simply by averting their eyes."


<a target=new href=""><b>1942Battle of Midway (a lot more info)</b></a> - Japan lost four carriers, a cruiser, and 292 aircraft, and suffered 2,500 casualties. The U.S. lost the Yorktown, the destroyer USS Hammann, 145 aircraft, and suffered 307 casualties. Japan's losses in the hobbled its naval might--bringing Japanese and American sea power to approximate parity--and marked the turning point in the Pacific theater of World War II. In August 1942, the great U.S. counteroffensive began at Guadalcanal and did not cease until Japan's surrender three years later.


<a target=new href="http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/today/0607.html"><b>1939 British king visits U.S.</b></a> - King George VI becomes the first British monarch to visit the United States when he and his wife, Elizabeth, cross the Canadian-U.S. border to Niagara Falls, New York.

<a target=new href="http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/today/0607.html"><b>1893 Gandhi's first act of civil disobedience</b></a> - Mohandas K. Gandhi, a young Indian lawyer working in South Africa, refuses to comply with racial segregation rules on a South African train and is forcibly ejected at Pietermaritzburg.

<a target=new href="http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/oldwest.html"><b>1866 Chief Seattle dies near the city named for him</b></a>
The Suquamish believed the mention of a dead man's name disturbs his eternal rest. To provide Chief Seattle with a pre-payment for the difficulties he would face in the afterlife, the people of Seattle levied a small tax on themselves to use the chief's name.
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Old 06-07-2003, 05:45 AM   #2 (permalink)
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Much more interesting than the "This Day in History" column in the morning paper. Thanks for the reminder of our First Amendment rights' vulnerability.
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Old 06-07-2003, 07:04 AM   #3 (permalink)
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The Battle of Midway was an intellegence victory in many ways. The Japanese were not expecting to face the force they did at Midway, and suffered heavily because of it. The four carriers lost were never replaced.

After Pearl Harbor, an essential victory for the American forces and the American psyche.

Thanks.

EDIT: For those interested, more on the role of intelligence at Midway. This passage does not adequately describe the breaking of Japanese code, which is a fascinating subject. The breaking of JN-25 led to everything from special operations missions to assassinations of Japanese leadership. An interesting study on both how code is broken and the implications of doing so.

here's a very basic overview:
http://216.65.20.88/midway/bill_price_2.html

Last edited by gov135; 06-07-2003 at 07:20 AM..
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Old 06-07-2003, 10:48 AM   #4 (permalink)
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beautiful fucking story.

(sorry)
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Old 06-07-2003, 11:07 AM   #5 (permalink)
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Fuck yeah!!
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Old 06-07-2003, 11:25 AM   #6 (permalink)
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lol, thank you mr warren
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Old 07-01-2003, 12:50 PM   #7 (permalink)
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Hoo-ya!
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