Tilted Forum Project Discussion Community  

Go Back   Tilted Forum Project Discussion Community > The Academy > Tilted Life


 
 
LinkBack Thread Tools
Old 12-29-2005, 01:57 PM   #1 (permalink)
PIKE!
 
ibis's Avatar
 
Rubbing Alcohol or Hydrogen Peroxide on cuts and scrapes?

Rubbing alcohol hurts much more than hydrogen peroxide... does this mean it's better to use?

Thanks for the responces.
ibis is offline  
Old 12-29-2005, 03:35 PM   #2 (permalink)
Junkie
 
eribrav's Avatar
 
Location: upstate NY
both bad

Actually they are both bad.

The cells that repair your cut are annihilated by peroxide and alcohol. Just make sure the wound is clean,,,,flush out any debris that might be in there.

Then keep it clean and apply an antibiotic ointment if you feel you absolutely must do something.
eribrav is offline  
Old 12-29-2005, 04:33 PM   #3 (permalink)
A Storm Is Coming
 
thingstodo's Avatar
 
Location: The Great White North
I personally like hydrogen peroxide for superficial wounds. It sort of cauterizes the surface tissue and prevent infection once properly cleaned. But then, I'm one of those that still believes mecuricrome (spelling?) works well on the same type of cuts. When I use both I never get an infection, the wound heals quickly and there is little scaring. Neosporin sometmies allows me to get an infection.
__________________
If you're wringing your hands you can't roll up your shirt sleeves.

Stangers have the best candy.
thingstodo is offline  
Old 12-29-2005, 07:05 PM   #4 (permalink)
High Honorary Junkie
 
Location: Tri-state.
Quote:
Originally Posted by eribrav
Actually they are both bad.

The cells that repair your cut are annihilated by peroxide and alcohol. Just make sure the wound is clean,,,,flush out any debris that might be in there.

Then keep it clean and apply an antibiotic ointment if you feel you absolutely must do something.
how do you know this to be true? the cells that repair the cut are brought to the wound over time, so wouldn't it make sense to kill as many infectious agents in the beginning, even if this means losing a few of your own cells, in preparation for the repairs to come?

in any case, i've had positive experiences (no scarring, no infection) the many times I've been superficially injured ("It's only a flesh wound.") and used each sequentially.
macmanmike6100 is offline  
Old 12-29-2005, 07:10 PM   #5 (permalink)
Junkie
 
Leto's Avatar
 
Location: The Danforth
yep, I use both, interchangeably. No problems to report here. Although, the Hydrogen Peroxide can cause your hair to bleach if you use on your forehead etc...
__________________
You said you didn't give a fuck about hockey
And I never saw someone say that before
You held my hand and we walked home the long way
You were loosening my grip on Bobby Orr


http://dune.wikia.com/wiki/Leto_Atreides_I
Leto is offline  
Old 12-29-2005, 11:45 PM   #6 (permalink)
King Knave
 
QuasiMojo's Avatar
 
Location: Lancaster
Hydrogen Per Oxide- light duty for the old "this might be infected" set.

91%Alcohol(Isopropyl) for the "This is gonna hurt but I wanna live" set.

what IS the difference between "wood" and "rubbing" anyway ?
__________________
AzAbOv ZoBeLoE
QuasiMojo is offline  
Old 12-30-2005, 05:22 AM   #7 (permalink)
A Storm Is Coming
 
thingstodo's Avatar
 
Location: The Great White North
Quote:
Originally Posted by macmanmike6100
how do you know this to be true? the cells that repair the cut are brought to the wound over time, so wouldn't it make sense to kill as many infectious agents in the beginning, even if this means losing a few of your own cells, in preparation for the repairs to come?

in any case, i've had positive experiences (no scarring, no infection) the many times I've been superficially injured ("It's only a flesh wound.") and used each sequentially.
That's a great question to ask!!

By the way, for the previous post...I thnk you get wood from rubbing. Heh, heh!
__________________
If you're wringing your hands you can't roll up your shirt sleeves.

Stangers have the best candy.
thingstodo is offline  
Old 12-30-2005, 11:11 AM   #8 (permalink)
Go Cardinals
 
soccerchamp76's Avatar
 
Location: St. Louis/Cincinnati
Isopropyl alcohol ("rubbing" alcohol) is an antiseptic and will sanitize your cut. No, it does not "annihilate cells" that would help you recover. The only thing that helps you recover are platelets which are found in your blood anyways.

Hydrogen peroxide when in contact with blood, will product pure water and oxygen which will help you clean the cut, but not disinfect the wound.

I would use the hydrogen peroxide first to clean the cut, and then apply the alcohol (isopropyl or ethanol works) to sanitize the cut, then apply a bandage. Now let your body do its natural work to form the scab over a clean wound.
__________________
Brian Griffin: Ah, if my memory serves me, this is the physics department.
Chris Griffin: That would explain all the gravity.
soccerchamp76 is offline  
Old 12-30-2005, 11:35 AM   #9 (permalink)
Boy am I horny today
 
absorbentishe's Avatar
 
Location: T O L E D O, Toledo!!
I sold first aid for a while, and we never suggested either. We suggested cleaning the wound with an antimicrobial cleaner, then applying an antibiotic ointment, then a bandaid. You could use the alcohol around the wound, to help the bandage stick better. Peroxide and alcohol to clean wounds isn't the best, since neither kill the germs. Always apply an antibiotic ointment, helps the wound heal faster, and kills germs.
absorbentishe is offline  
Old 12-30-2005, 01:35 PM   #10 (permalink)
A Storm Is Coming
 
thingstodo's Avatar
 
Location: The Great White North
I don't know...I still like forming a scab (like soccar), which is the body's natural way to deal with a wound. Guess that's why I don't like the ointments as much. HP followed by some mecuricrome (spelling again) leads to a scab.

But my caveat is that is my old school way of this sort of thing. It just always worked, and I mean always.
__________________
If you're wringing your hands you can't roll up your shirt sleeves.

Stangers have the best candy.
thingstodo is offline  
Old 12-31-2005, 01:40 PM   #11 (permalink)
Insane
 
Location: Georgia
Prefer alcohol because the pain makes me feel like it is working. Peroxide just bubbles and feels cold.
__________________
I have to exercise in the morning before my brain figures out what I'm doing. ~Marsha Doble
dman2 is offline  
Old 01-01-2006, 11:29 AM   #12 (permalink)
Go Cardinals
 
soccerchamp76's Avatar
 
Location: St. Louis/Cincinnati
Quote:
Originally Posted by absorbentishe
I sold first aid for a while, and we never suggested either. We suggested cleaning the wound with an antimicrobial cleaner, then applying an antibiotic ointment, then a bandaid. You could use the alcohol around the wound, to help the bandage stick better. Peroxide and alcohol to clean wounds isn't the best, since neither kill the germs. Always apply an antibiotic ointment, helps the wound heal faster, and kills germs.
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is an antiseptic. You know the water-free, hand sanitizer? All that is is alcohol, fragrance, and thickeners so it is a gel and not a liquid. In short, yes, alcohol does kill germs. Hydrogen peroxide, however, does not. All that does is form pure O2 and H20 but it does clean the wound.
__________________
Brian Griffin: Ah, if my memory serves me, this is the physics department.
Chris Griffin: That would explain all the gravity.
soccerchamp76 is offline  
Old 01-01-2006, 03:32 PM   #13 (permalink)
Psycho
 
1010011010's Avatar
 
Location: Virginia Beach, VA
Both are effective disinfectants.
Alcohol is indiscriminate, while H2O2 will be more damaging to bacteria than your own cells at low concentrations (See: peroxisome for starter info). The bubbing action will also help clean the wound and some cranks claim the oxygenation speeds healing.

Consider that you're comparing a 70-90% alcohol solution to a 3-6% hydrogen peroxide solution. A 3-6% alcohol solution will be, for the most part, indistinguishable from water. A 70-90% peroxide soution will possibly cause your cut or scrape to burst into flame (especially if you'd just put 70-90% alcohol solution on it).

I'd recommend the peroxide as it's less painful and more fun to watch.
__________________
Simple Machines in Higher Dimensions
1010011010 is offline  
Old 01-02-2006, 03:22 AM   #14 (permalink)
A Storm Is Coming
 
thingstodo's Avatar
 
Location: The Great White North
Quote:
Originally Posted by 1010011010
Both are effective disinfectants.
Alcohol is indiscriminate, while H2O2 will be more damaging to bacteria than your own cells at low concentrations (See: peroxisome for starter info). The bubbing action will also help clean the wound and some cranks claim the oxygenation speeds healing.

Consider that you're comparing a 70-90% alcohol solution to a 3-6% hydrogen peroxide solution. A 3-6% alcohol solution will be, for the most part, indistinguishable from water. A 70-90% peroxide soution will possibly cause your cut or scrape to burst into flame (especially if you'd just put 70-90% alcohol solution on it).

I'd recommend the peroxide as it's less painful and more fun to watch.
Bump to all that, especially the last part!

I first learned of HP when I was about 10. I used to run in flip flops and stub my big toe. You can imagine what that was like. After running water through the flap of skin, my grandmother would hit it with HP. Wow, those bubbles hurt for a second and then all went away. Then she dried my toe and doused it with mecuricrome. I was back in action.

I think watching those bubbles go to work took my mind off my hurting toe!
__________________
If you're wringing your hands you can't roll up your shirt sleeves.

Stangers have the best candy.
thingstodo is offline  
Old 01-02-2006, 03:27 PM   #15 (permalink)
An embarrassment to myself and those around me...
 
VitaminH's Avatar
 
Location: Pants
Quote:
Originally Posted by macmanmike6100
how do you know this to be true? the cells that repair the cut are brought to the wound over time, so wouldn't it make sense to kill as many infectious agents in the beginning, even if this means losing a few of your own cells, in preparation for the repairs to come?

in any case, i've had positive experiences (no scarring, no infection) the many times I've been superficially injured ("It's only a flesh wound.") and used each sequentially.

The most recent evidence does indeed suggest you use neither as they damange the expose tissue (at least the last I read). It may prevent an infection yes, but in turn it still damages the cells that are in the wound.

Clean it with soap and water, then use an antibiotic ointment such as Neo- or Poly-sporin.
__________________
"Glory is fleeting, but obscurity is forever."
- Napoleon Bonaparte
VitaminH is offline  
Old 01-04-2006, 12:15 AM   #16 (permalink)
Upright
 
povidone-iodine is the best stuff for cleaning wounds. My mom is a nurse and uses this stuff. Hydrogen peroxide is only supposed to be used to flush out wounds and get all the shit that isn't supposed to be there out. Povidone-iodine is commercially sold as Betadine solution ( thats the name brand stuff) while Wal-mart has their own brand that's half the price. And this stuff really doesn't hurt either, which is good. And it's what the hospitals use, so it's gotta be good. And I noticed I like to start sentences with and a lot. Anyway, stop screwing around with rubbing alcohol and go get some Betadine or generic povidone-iodine solution. It's 5 bucks for a bottle of the generic stuff, but it's worth not getting infections.
orangemonkeyee is offline  
Old 01-04-2006, 05:23 AM   #17 (permalink)
peekaboo
 
ngdawg's Avatar
 
Location: on the back, bitch
Quote:
Originally Posted by orangemonkeyee
povidone-iodine is the best stuff for cleaning wounds. My mom is a nurse and uses this stuff. Hydrogen peroxide is only supposed to be used to flush out wounds and get all the shit that isn't supposed to be there out. Povidone-iodine is commercially sold as Betadine solution ( thats the name brand stuff) while Wal-mart has their own brand that's half the price. And this stuff really doesn't hurt either, which is good. And it's what the hospitals use, so it's gotta be good. And I noticed I like to start sentences with and a lot. Anyway, stop screwing around with rubbing alcohol and go get some Betadine or generic povidone-iodine solution. It's 5 bucks for a bottle of the generic stuff, but it's worth not getting infections.
Just want to add, if anyone is allergic to shellfish, do NOT use this-it's the iodine in shellfish that causes the reaction and, depending on your allergy, you can go into anaphylactic(sp) shock. In this case, peroxide is what should be used.( make sure if you have to go to the ER or take someone there, this and all allergies are revealed)
__________________
Don't blame me. I didn't vote for either of'em.
ngdawg is offline  
Old 08-29-2009, 06:51 PM   #18 (permalink)
Upright
 
Rick Upshaw's Avatar
 
Location: Texas
Quote:
Originally Posted by orangemonkeyee View Post
povidone-iodine is the best stuff for cleaning wounds. My mom is a nurse and uses this stuff. Hydrogen peroxide is only supposed to be used to flush out wounds and get all the shit that isn't supposed to be there out. Povidone-iodine is commercially sold as Betadine solution ( thats the name brand stuff) while Wal-mart has their own brand that's half the price. And this stuff really doesn't hurt either, which is good. And it's what the hospitals use, so it's gotta be good. And I noticed I like to start sentences with and a lot. Anyway, stop screwing around with rubbing alcohol and go get some Betadine or generic povidone-iodine solution. It's 5 bucks for a bottle of the generic stuff, but it's worth not getting infections.
Quote:
Originally Posted by ngdawg View Post
Just want to add, if anyone is allergic to shellfish, do NOT use this-it's the iodine in shellfish that causes the reaction and, depending on your allergy, you can go into anaphylactic(sp) shock. In this case, peroxide is what should be used.( make sure if you have to go to the ER or take someone there, this and all allergies are revealed)
I have just spent more than an hour on Google looking at a vast amount of forums just like this one trying to figure out what's what when it comes to hydrogen peroxide vs. alcohol. As we can see right here in this thread, there are a lot of varying opinions on this matter, and most of them conflict. So if you are reading this thread as a result of a Google search, then you are probably as frustrated as I am right about now.

This being the case, I would like to thank "orangemonkeyee" for taking the time to answer this question. That answer appears to be the most accurate one. Also, kudos to "ngdawg" for adding that important point about allergies.

Here is what I have gathered that seems to be a good synopsis:

Use iodine to clean and disinfect the wound, and possibly neosporin or polysporin for extra antibiotic protection. If you have a lot of crud in the wound, then you might want to use hydrogen peroxide to clean that out prior to applying iodine. If you don't have iodine, and you're not comfortable just using soap and water, then use hydrogen peroxide to clean the wound and alcohol to disinfect.

Do I have that right? Looks like it!
__________________
"If you help enough other people get where they want to go, you'll eventually get where you want to go." - Zig Ziglar
Rick Upshaw is offline  
Old 08-29-2009, 08:37 PM   #19 (permalink)
Junkie
 
Location: San Francisco
Quote:
Originally Posted by QuasiMojo View Post
Hydrogen Per Oxide- light duty for the old "this might be infected" set.

91%Alcohol(Isopropyl) for the "This is gonna hurt but I wanna live" set.

what IS the difference between "wood" and "rubbing" anyway ?
Wood alcohol is methanol, CH3OH
Rubbing alcohol is isopropyl alcohol, CH(CH3)2OH
Just a minor chemical difference, they have quite similar macroscopic properties and for the purpose of cleaning wounds can be considered essentially the same.
For comparison drinking alcohol is ethanol, CH3CH2OH, which also has similar properties but happens to be much less toxic.
__________________
"Prohibition will work great injury to the cause of temperance. It is a species of intemperance within itself, for it goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man's appetite by legislation, and makes a crime out of things that are not crimes. A Prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principles upon which our government was founded." --Abraham Lincoln
n0nsensical is offline  
Old 09-11-2009, 07:50 PM   #20 (permalink)
Upright
 
Duskwynd's Avatar
 
Location: Toronto, Ontario
I just use soap and water and that usually works well for me. My grandmother used to get these horrific infections on cuts and scrapes she didn't clean properly and didn't tell anyone about until they actually got really infected; I used a aromatherapy mix that I keep in my first aid kit at all times:

In a cup of warm (not hot) water put
3 drops Myrrh essential oil
3 drops Lavender essential oil
3 drops Geranium essential oil

Agitate with a piece of gauze, and the place gauze on the affected area for about 10 minutes. Repeat 3 or 4 times a day depending on the level of infection.

When you use this you can actually see the redness of the infection receeding and my grandmother would be virtually healed within one week of using this (usually less).

Blessings!
Duskwynd
__________________
"A true master makes a life not a living."
~ Unknown
Duskwynd is offline  
Old 09-12-2009, 01:16 AM   #21 (permalink)
Psycho
 
I use witch hazel rather than rubbing alcohol. It heals better for me.
ametc is offline  
Old 09-12-2009, 02:45 AM   #22 (permalink)
You had me at hello
 
Poppinjay's Avatar
 
Location: DC/Coastal VA
I like to put peroxide in my ears. It's a rush.
__________________
I think the Apocalypse is happening all around us. We go on eating desserts and watching TV. I know I do. I wish we were more capable of sustained passion and sustained resistance. We should be screaming and what we do is gossip. -Lydia Millet
Poppinjay is offline  
Old 09-12-2009, 04:35 AM   #23 (permalink)
Leaning against the -Sun-
 
little_tippler's Avatar
 
Super Moderator
Location: on the other side
if it's messy and still bleeding, hydrogen peroxide first, then alcohol. A lot of the time, alcohol is handy so I will use that to kill all the bacteria and disinfect the wound.
__________________
Whether we write or speak or do but look
We are ever unapparent. What we are
Cannot be transfused into word or book.
Our soul from us is infinitely far.
However much we give our thoughts the will
To be our soul and gesture it abroad,
Our hearts are incommunicable still.
In what we show ourselves we are ignored.
The abyss from soul to soul cannot be bridged
By any skill of thought or trick of seeming.
Unto our very selves we are abridged
When we would utter to our thought our being.
We are our dreams of ourselves, souls by gleams,
And each to each other dreams of others' dreams.


Fernando Pessoa, 1918
little_tippler is offline  
Old 09-12-2009, 05:43 AM   #24 (permalink)
Une petite chou
 
noodle's Avatar
 
Location: With All Your Base
i'm allergic to iodine, so i default to peroxide first.
if it continues to look red and yuck after an hour or two, i'll do a quick swab with alcohol.
and then let it alone with antibiotic ointment and a bandaid if needed.


however, should you end up tripping over a stick, embedding it in between the nail bed and the cuticle of your big toe... don't screw around, just go to the doctor. MRSA and an effed up toenail are not worth it.
__________________
Here's how life works: you either get to ask for an apology or you get to shoot people. Not both. House

Quote:
Originally Posted by Plan9
Just realize that you're armed with smart but heavily outnumbered.
The question isnít who is going to let me; itís who is going to stop me. Ayn Rand
noodle is offline  
Old 09-12-2009, 08:57 AM   #25 (permalink)
Evil Priest: The Devil Made Me Do It!
 
Daniel_'s Avatar
 
Location: Southern England
Just for the record, research shows that a 40% w/w solution of Isopropanol in water is the best antibacterial, rather than a 90% one.

IPA has a need to bind to water molecules, and each gram of alcohol needs one and a half grams of water to satisfy its need for spare electron density.

This amount of water means that the alcohol can get into bacterial cells and disrupt their aqueous and lipid chemistry, whereas very pure IPA can only affect lipid chemistry.

It will also prevent the burning sensation a little, as it calms the tendency to dehydrate the tissue in the wound.
__________________
╔═════════════════════════════════════════╗
Overhead, the Albatross hangs motionless upon the air,
And deep beneath the rolling waves,
In labyrinths of Coral Caves,
The Echo of a distant time
Comes willowing across the sand;
And everthing is Green and Submarine

╚═════════════════════════════════════════╝
Daniel_ is offline  
Old 12-26-2009, 07:20 AM   #26 (permalink)
Upright
 
What the Mayo Clinic says...

Rinse out the wound with clear water. Soap can irritate the wound, so try to keep it out of the actual wound. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles. If debris still remains, see your doctor.

Thorough cleaning reduces the risk of infection and tetanus. To clean the area around the wound, use soap and a washcloth. There's no need to use hydrogen peroxide, iodine or an iodine-containing cleanser.

Apply an antibiotic. After you clean the wound, apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment such as Neosporin or Polysporin to help keep the surface moist. The products don't make the wound heal faster, but they can discourage infection and help your body's natural healing process. Certain ingredients in some ointments can cause a mild rash in some people. If a rash appears, stop using the ointment.

Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. After the wound has healed enough to make infection unlikely, exposure to the air will speed wound healing.

Change the dressing. Change the dressing at least daily or whenever it becomes wet or dirty. If you're allergic to the adhesive used in most bandages, switch to adhesive-free dressings or sterile gauze held in place with paper tape, gauze roll or a loosely applied elastic bandage. These supplies generally are available at pharmacies.

Get stitches for deep wounds. A wound that is more than 1/4-inch (6 millimeters) deep or is gaping or jagged edged and has fat or muscle protruding usually requires stitches. Adhesive strips or butterfly tape may hold a minor cut together, but if you can't easily close the wound, see your doctor as soon as possible. Proper closure within a few hours reduces the risk of infection.

Watch for signs of infection. See your doctor if the wound isn't healing or you notice any redness, increasing pain, drainage, warmth or swelling.

Get a tetanus shot. Doctors recommend you get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your wound is deep or dirty and your last shot was more than five years ago, your doctor may recommend a tetanus shot booster. Get the booster as soon as possible after the injury.
midiboy is offline  
Old 12-26-2009, 08:09 AM   #27 (permalink)
Submit to me, you know you want to
 
ShaniFaye's Avatar
 
Location: Lilburn, Ga
I have nothing to add but that Mecurachrome (and methylaid sp?) bring back some wonderfully painful childhood memories lol I havent thought about that stuff in years...along with Bactine
__________________
I want the diabetic plan that comes with rollover carbs. I dont like the unused one expiring at midnite!!
ShaniFaye is offline  
Old 12-29-2009, 10:26 AM   #28 (permalink)
Insane
 
Halanna's Avatar
 
Location: Over the rainbow . .
Quote:
Originally Posted by ShaniFaye View Post
I have nothing to add but that Mecurachrome (and methylaid sp?) bring back some wonderfully painful childhood memories lol I havent thought about that stuff in years...along with Bactine
No idea how to spell it either, but I remember Mythylaid and Bactine too.

But I wanted to comment that I *believe* mecuricrome is no longer available as it contained mercury and was banned by the FDA. Unless it has been reformulated and put back on the market.
Halanna is offline  
Old 12-29-2009, 11:23 AM   #29 (permalink)
Banned
 
Zeraph's Avatar
 
Location: The Cosmos
My questions are, 1. Should I keep a wound bandaged 24/7? Semi serious wounds like ~2nd degree burns where some skin sloughs off seems like they should dry out a few times a day. 2. Should scabs be softly washed away once a week or so? My wounds seem to heal faster if I don't let the scab get too rock hard.
Zeraph is offline  
 

Tags
alcohol, cuts, hydrogen, peroxide, rubbing, scrapes

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On



All times are GMT -8. The time now is 03:46 PM.

Tilted Forum Project

Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Search Engine Optimization by vBSEO 3.6.0 PL2
© 2002-2012 Tilted Forum Project

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360